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BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE (BAC)

ECORAD HARNESSES THE IMMENSE POWER OF BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE FAST-ACTING DISINFECTANT.

WHAT DOES BAC LOOK LIKE?
BAC pairs its bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal activity with a great cleaning ability. It owes this cleaning and disinfection power to its hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions. These regions interact with pathogens in various ways, causing them to disintegrate and lose their structure.

WHY BAC?
Benzalkonium Chloride, also known as BAC, is a colourless and odourless antiseptic ingredient. It is part of the quaternary ammonium compounds, or QACs. It has a positively charged substance (or surfactant) and combines the killing power of bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal activity with a good cleaning ability. Due to its microbial activities, BACs are included in ophthalmic, nasal and dental materials. It is also used in the food industry for surface disinfection against a large variety of microorganisms.

BAC is active at low concentrations and is considered a fast-acting disinfectant. According to the FDA, 33.98% of healthcare antiseptic sanitisers and rubs contain BAC - making it one of the most popular active ingredients for health care antiseptic rubs in the world.


WHERE IS IT USED?
One of the main advantages of BAC is that it does not damage textiles, carpeting or metal surfaces - whereas oxidizing chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide or Chlorine Dioxide would.

CAN BE USED ON ANY SURFACE

HOW DOES IT KILL/INHIBIT - BACTERIA
BAC molecules have a positively-charged, water-loving region (known as the hydrophilic region) that interacts with negatively-charged components on the membrane of bacteria. The water-hating (or hydrophobic) part of the BAC molecule then penetrates the bacterial water-hating (hydrophobic) bi-layer, leading to the contents of the cell leaking out, and the bacteria dying.

EFFECTIVE AGAINST VIRUSES
BACs are also effective against a long list of enveloped viruses - including influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, coronavirus, herpes simplex, hepatitis A and have recently also been shown to be effective against HCoV-SARS-2. BAC reacts with viruses in a similar way to bacteria - with the positively charged head of the BAC interacting with the negatively charged parts of the phospholipids in the lipid bilayer, which form the viral envelope. This interaction results in the disruption of the membrane and gaps are formed which allow for the tail end component of the BAC to further disrupt the membrane's physical and biochemical properties. The function of the proteins in the membrane are subsequently inhibited.
HOW DOES IT KILL/INHIBIT - VIRUSES

HOW DOES IT KILL/INHIBIT - FUNGI
BAC inhibits fungal growth by slowing down its germination rate through the suppression of its hyphal elongation and formation of colonies. By leveraging the capabilities of BACs, BAC containing antiseptics and cleaning agents can therefore keep your surfaces clean from a multitude of disease-causing bacteria, fungi and viruses which have the potential to compromise your health.

BAC is active at low concentrations and is considered a fast-acting disinfectant. According to the FDA, 33.98% of healthcare antiseptic sanitisers and rubs contain BAC - making it one of the most popular active ingredients for health care antiseptic rubs in the world.

What does the research demonstrate?
  • A recent study in the health care sector has found that for rinse-free hand sanitizers to be of any value in this setting, the antiseptic should give persistent antimicrobial activity with repeated use. In this same study, they showed that sanitisers containing BAC retained their antimicrobial effectiveness over time with no adverse effects.
  • In light of the current HCoV-SARS-2 outbreak, it has become more evident that effective sanitisation methods are needed. While numerous studies have shown that benzalkonium chloride is effective against the HCoV-SARS-2 virus, a study recently published in November 2020, has proven that just 0.2% BAC was effective in inactivating HCoV-SARS-2 within 15 seconds of contact. Of the EPA’s list of 370 products which are suitable disinfectants against HCoV-SARS-2 a total of 40% contain BAC. BAC remains on the FDA’s list of approved active ingredients for hand sanitizers.

How do we harness BAC?
  • EcoRad has leveraged these antimicrobial properties of Benzalkonium Chloride, bringing to you a simple and easy to use BAc containing surface wipe. You simply need to open the sealed bucket, take a wipe and Swipe ‘N Wipe any surface you want to clean and disinfect.
  • The Swipe ‘N Wipe EcoRad wipes supply you with extremely thick and moisture-retaining wipes for effectively cleaning and disinfecting surface areas in offices, hospitals, shopping malls, trade-fairs, trains, cars, elevators, cafeterias, and your home.

References

1. Basaran, P., 2011. Inhibition effect of belzalkonium chloride treatment on growth of common food contaminating fungal species. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 48(4), pp.515-519.


2. Fda.gov. 2021. Safety and Effectiveness for Health Care Antiseptics; Topical Antimicrobial Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Proposed Amendment of the Tentative Final Monograph; Reopening of Administrative Record. [online] Available at: <https://www.fda.gov/media/92294/download#:~:text=Category%20III%20active%20

antiseptic%20ingredients,330.10.> [Accessed 18 November 2021].


3. Chen, Liang et al. “Antibacterial dental restorative materials: A review.” American journal of dentistry vol. 31,Sp Is B 6B-12B. 15 Nov. 2018


4. Analysis of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QACs) in Fruits and Vegetables using QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS. (2016). [online] EURL-SRM, Fellbach, Germany: EU Reference Laboratory for Pesticides, pp.1–6. Available at: https://www.eurl-pesticides.eu/userfiles/file/EurlSRM/EurlSRM_meth_QAC_ShortMethod.pdf [Accessed 18 Nov. 2021].


5.McDonnell, G.. (2009). Sterilization and Disinfection. 10.1016/B978-012373944-5.00143-7.


6.Dyer, D.L., Gerenratch, K.B. and Wadhams, P.S. (1998). Testing a New Alcohol-Free Hand Sanitizer to Combat Infection. AORN Journal, [online] 68(2), pp.239–251. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0001209206625179 [Accessed 20 Nov. 2019].


7.www.pharmaceutical-technology.com. (n.d.). Exploring whether Benzalkonium Chloride could be effective against SARS-CoV-2. [online] Available at: https://www.pharmaceutical-technology.com/sponsored/benzalkonium-chloride-quats-sars-cov-2/ [Accessed 18 Nov. 2021].


8. Ogilvie, B.H., Solis-Leal, A., Lopez, J.B., Poole, B.D., Robison, R.A. and Berges, B.K. (2021). Alcohol-free hand sanitizer and other quaternary ammonium disinfectants quickly and effectively inactivate SARS-CoV-2. Journal of Hospital Infection, [online] 108, pp.142–145. Available at: https://www.journalofhospitalinfection.com/article/S0195-6701(20)30547-8/fulltext [Accessed 19 Feb. 2021].


9.Rabenau, H.F., Kampf, G., Cinatl, J. and Doerr, H.W. (2005). Efficacy of various disinfectants against SARS coronavirus. Journal of Hospital Infection, 61(2), pp.107–111.

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